References(click on hyperlinks to open sources)
“Antigua 37 (Friar’s Hill): Claim Details, Associated Individuals and Estates.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. Accessed April 5, 2022. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/claim/view/140.
Batchelder Family Collection. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cambridge Historical Commission. https://www.cambridgema.gov/historic/researchaids/archivalcollections.
Batchelder, Samuel Francis. 1893. Christ Church, Cambridge: Some Account of Its History and Present Condition, Especially Prepared for Visitors. Genealogy & Local History. United Kingdom: n.p. https://books.google.com/books?id=JC73wppizFgC.
______. 1917. Notes on Colonel Henry Vassall (1721-1769): His Wife Penelope Royall, His House at Cambridge, and His Slaves Tony & Darby. Cambridge, Massachusetts. https://books.google.com/books/about/Notes_on_Colonel_Henry_Vassall_1721_1769.html?id=nJYlAQAAMAAJ.
Beckert, Sven. 2014. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. First edition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. https://books.google.com/books/about/Empire_of_Cotton.html?id=1QzhngEACAAJ.
Beckert, Sven, and Katherine Stevens. 2011. “Harvard and Slavery: Seeking a Forgotten History.” https://www.harvardandslavery.com/resources/.
Bell, J. L. 2012. “George Washington’s Headquarters and Home - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Longfellow House - Washington Headquarters National Historic Site.” Historic Resource Study. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Northeast Region History Program. https://www.nps.gov/long/learn/historyculture/upload/Washington-Headquarters-HRS.pdf.
Bishop, John Leander. 1868. “10. Index to Representative Manufacturers.” In A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860: Exhibiting the Origin and Growth of the Principal Mechanic Arts and Manufactures, from the Earliest Colonial Period to the Adoption of the Constitution: And Comprising Annals of the Industry of the United States in Machinery, Manufactures and Useful Arts, with a Notice of the Important Inventions, Tariffs, and the Results of Each Decennial Census, 2:514–34. Philadelphia: Edward Young & Co. https://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/IJVJIEUN6C6IC84.
“Darby Vassall.” n.d. George Washington’s Mount Vernon. Accessed April 16, 2022. https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/darby-vassall/.
Day, Gardiner M. 1951. The Biography of a Church: A Brief History of Christ Church, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cambridge, Mass: Priv. print. at the Riverside Press. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Biography_of_a_Church.html?id=z-M8AQAAIAAJ.
Dus, Aimee. 2009. “The Batchelder Family Collection.” Finding aid. Cambridge Historical Commission. https://www.cambridgema.gov/-/media/Files/historicalcommission/pdf/findingaids/fa_batchelder.pdf.
“Extract from the Will of Isaac Royall, 1778.” 1778. Corporation papers, 1st series, supplements to the Harvard College Papers, Volumes 1 and 2, UAI 5.110, UAI 5.110, Volume 2, Item 74. Harvard University Archives. https://id.lib.harvard.edu/ead/c/hua07018c00076/catalog.
Fossett, Alden. 2021. “A Law of Love.” Sermon, Christ Church Cambridge, Cambridge, MA, October 30. https://docs.google.com/document/d/12hfj0NGyOg0aGHKYZqLK7Nyty507Pagq/edit.
“Friar’s Hill: Antigua.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. Accessed April 5, 2022. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estate/view/317.
Hail, Christopher. n.d. “Brattle Street.” Harvard/Radcliffe Online Historical Reference Shelf: Cambridge Buildings and Architects. Accessed April 26, 2022. https://wayback.archive-it.org/5488/20170330145537/http:/hul.harvard.edu/lib/archives/refshelf/cba/b.html#brattlest.
Hartocollis, Anemona. 2016. “Harvard Law to Abandon Crest Linked to Slavery.” The New York Times, March 4, 2016, sec. U.S. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/05/us/harvard-law-to-abandon-crest-linked-to-slavery.html.
Hassan, Adeel. 2019. “Antigua Demands Harvard Pay Reparations for Benefiting From Slavery.” The New York Times, November 6, 2019, sec. U.S. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/06/us/harvard-antigua-slavery-reparations.html.
Hoppin Collection Materials on Christ Church, 1790-1861. n.d. Box 1, Folder 7. History Cambridge, Samuel Francis Batchelder Papers, 1765-1930, Series I: Christ Church, Cambridge, 1765-1923. https://historycambridge.org/research/samuel-francis-batchelder-papers-1765-1930/.
Hurwitz, Mark. 2015. “This Old Pew: #10 and #11 - The Vassalls.” The Old North Church & Historic Site. April 15, 2015. https://www.oldnorth.com/blog/the-vassalls/.
“John Vassall I.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. n.d. http://wwwdepts-live.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146650677.
“Last Will and Testament of Leonard Vassall. Boston, 10 Jun 1737.” 1737. Temple, Nelson, Lloyd, Vassall, and Borland family papers, MS Am 1250, (19), Box: 1. Houghton Library. https://id.lib.harvard.edu/ead/c/hou01316c00021/catalog.
“Leonard Vassall.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. n.d. http://wwwdepts-live.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146656191.
Lloyd, Dennis, and Egypt Lloyd. 2022. “The Descendants of Darby Vassall on the Legacy of Slavery and Freedom.” Boston Public Library Online Event, April 26. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm2Y9OKC4VA.
Manegold, C.S. 2009. Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://books.google.com/books/about/Ten_Hills_Farm.html?id=YVoqAQAAIAAJ&source=kp_book_description.
Museum of African American History, and Harvard & the Legacy of Slavery. 2022. “Agency.” Online Exhibition. We Claim/Reclaim Space. April 29, 2022. https://www.weclaimspace.org/agency.
Parish Record Book, 1759-1878. 1759. Christ Church in Cambridge (Mass.) church records, 88M-31, (1), Volume: 1. Houghton Library. https://id.lib.harvard.edu/ead/c/hou00395c00001/catalog.
“Pounds, Shillings and Pence Calculator.” n.d. Accessed April 20, 2022. https://www.retrowow.co.uk/retro_britain/old_money/sterling_calculator.html.
“Primary Sources: Public Records.” 2012. The Royall House and Slave Quarters. October 8, 2012. https://royallhouse.org/home/education/primary-resources/primary-sources/public-records/.
Shipton, Clifford Kenyon, and John Langdon Sibley. 1937. Sibley’s Harvard Graduates: Biographical Sketches of Those Who Attended Harvard College in the Classes 1701-1712 with Biographical and Other Notes. Vol. 5. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Historical Society. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012258527.
______. 1962. Sibley’s Harvard Graduates: Biographical Sketches of Those Who Attended Harvard College in the Classes 1746-1750 with Biographical and Other Notes. Vol. 12. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Historical Society. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012258527.
The African Society. 1802. “Laws of the African Society, Instituted at Boston, Anno Domini 1796.” Boston. MHS Collections Online. http://www.masshist.org/database/573.
The Cambridge Tribune. 1923. “The History of Vassall House from 1736 to 1923,” May 12, 1923, Volume 46, Number 11 edition. Cambridge Public Library’s Historic Cambridge Newspaper Collection. https://cambridge.dlconsulting.com/?a=d&d=Tribune19230512-01.2.102.
“The John Vassal Tankard.” n.d. Harvard Art Museums. Accessed April 5, 2022. https://harvardartmuseums.org/art/232227.
The Liberator. 1861. “Darby Vassall,” November 22, 1861. https://www.digitalcommonwealth.org/search/commonwealth:mc87rg189.
“The (Online) Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church: Together with the Psalter or Psalms of David According to the Use of the Episcopal Church.” n.d. https://bcponline.org/.
“The Royall Bequest and Harvard Law School.” n.d. The Royall House and Slave Quarters. Accessed April 3, 2022. https://royallhouse.org/the-royall-bequest-and-harvard-law-school/.
“Though Dwelling in a Land of Freedom.” n.d. U.S. National Park Service. Accessed December 5, 2021. https://www.nps.gov/articles/though-dwelling-in-a-land-of-freedom.htm.
“Vassall, Derby. [Will]. MS. (in Wendell Phillips’s Hand); Boston, 15 May 1852., 1852.” 1852. Wendell Phillips papers, MS Am 1953, (1582), Box: 45. Houghton Library. https://id.lib.harvard.edu/ead/c/hou00497c01629/catalog.
Wright, Carroll Davidson. 1882. Historical Review of Wages and Prices: 1752-1860 [From the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Masschusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor]. Vol. 1. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100884273.