︎︎︎Transcript   ︎︎︎Footnotes


(click on hyperlinks to open sources)

“Antigua 37 (Friar’s Hill): Claim Details, Associated Individuals and Estates.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. Accessed April 5, 2022.

Batchelder Family Collection. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cambridge Historical Commission.

Batchelder, Samuel Francis. 1893. Christ Church, Cambridge: Some Account of Its History and Present Condition, Especially Prepared for Visitors. Genealogy & Local History. United Kingdom: n.p.

______. 1917. Notes on Colonel Henry Vassall (1721-1769): His Wife Penelope Royall, His House at Cambridge, and His Slaves Tony & Darby. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Beckert, Sven. 2014. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. First edition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Beckert, Sven, and Katherine Stevens. 2011. “Harvard and Slavery: Seeking a Forgotten History.”

Bell, J. L. 2012. “George Washington’s Headquarters and Home - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Longfellow House - Washington Headquarters National Historic Site.” Historic Resource Study. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Northeast Region History Program.

Bishop, John Leander. 1868. “10. Index to Representative Manufacturers.” In A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860: Exhibiting the Origin and Growth of the Principal Mechanic Arts and Manufactures, from the Earliest Colonial Period to the Adoption of the Constitution: And Comprising Annals of the Industry of the United States in Machinery, Manufactures and Useful Arts, with a Notice of the Important Inventions, Tariffs, and the Results of Each Decennial Census, 2:514–34. Philadelphia: Edward Young & Co.

“Darby Vassall.” n.d. George Washington’s Mount Vernon. Accessed April 16, 2022.

Day, Gardiner M. 1951. The Biography of a Church: A Brief History of Christ Church, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cambridge, Mass: Priv. print. at the Riverside Press.

Dus, Aimee. 2009. “The Batchelder Family Collection.” Finding aid. Cambridge Historical Commission.

“Extract from the Will of Isaac Royall, 1778.” 1778. Corporation papers, 1st series, supplements to the Harvard College Papers, Volumes 1 and 2, UAI 5.110, UAI 5.110, Volume 2, Item 74. Harvard University Archives.

Fossett, Alden. 2021. “A Law of Love.” Sermon, Christ Church Cambridge, Cambridge, MA, October 30.

“Friar’s Hill: Antigua.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. Accessed April 5, 2022.

Hail, Christopher. n.d. “Brattle Street.” Harvard/Radcliffe Online Historical Reference Shelf: Cambridge Buildings and Architects. Accessed April 26, 2022.

Hartocollis, Anemona. 2016. “Harvard Law to Abandon Crest Linked to Slavery.” The New York Times, March 4, 2016, sec. U.S.

Hassan, Adeel. 2019. “Antigua Demands Harvard Pay Reparations for Benefiting From Slavery.” The New York Times, November 6, 2019, sec. U.S.

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Hurwitz, Mark. 2015. “This Old Pew: #10 and #11 - The Vassalls.” The Old North Church & Historic Site. April 15, 2015.

“John Vassall I.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. n.d.

“Last Will and Testament of Leonard Vassall. Boston, 10 Jun 1737.” 1737. Temple, Nelson, Lloyd, Vassall, and Borland family papers, MS Am 1250, (19), Box: 1. Houghton Library.

“Leonard Vassall.” n.d. Legacies of British Slavery Database. n.d.

Lloyd, Dennis, and Egypt Lloyd. 2022. “The Descendants of Darby Vassall on the Legacy of Slavery and Freedom.” Boston Public Library Online Event, April 26.

Manegold, C.S. 2009. Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Museum of African American History, and Harvard & the Legacy of Slavery. 2022. “Agency.” Online Exhibition. We Claim/Reclaim Space. April 29, 2022.

Parish Record Book, 1759-1878. 1759. Christ Church in Cambridge (Mass.) church records, 88M-31, (1), Volume: 1. Houghton Library.

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Shipton, Clifford Kenyon, and John Langdon Sibley. 1937. Sibley’s Harvard Graduates: Biographical Sketches of Those Who Attended Harvard College in the Classes 1701-1712 with Biographical and Other Notes. Vol. 5. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Historical Society.

______. 1962. Sibley’s Harvard Graduates: Biographical Sketches of Those Who Attended Harvard College in the Classes 1746-1750 with Biographical and Other Notes. Vol. 12. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Historical Society.

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“The John Vassal Tankard.” n.d. Harvard Art Museums. Accessed April 5, 2022.

The Liberator. 1861. “Darby Vassall,” November 22, 1861.

“The (Online) Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church: Together with the Psalter or Psalms of David According to the Use of the Episcopal Church.” n.d.

“The Royall Bequest and Harvard Law School.” n.d. The Royall House and Slave Quarters. Accessed April 3, 2022.

“Though Dwelling in a Land of Freedom.” n.d. U.S. National Park Service. Accessed December 5, 2021.

“Vassall, Derby. [Will]. MS. (in Wendell Phillips’s Hand); Boston, 15 May 1852., 1852.” 1852. Wendell Phillips papers, MS Am 1953, (1582), Box: 45. Houghton Library.

Wright, Carroll Davidson. 1882. Historical Review of Wages and Prices: 1752-1860 [From the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Masschusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor]. Vol. 1. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co.